Sea transport is the transportation of people (passengers) or goods (goods) with water. Freight transport has been widely used by the sea throughout history. The importance of sea voyage has reduced for travellers by the arrival of aviation, although it is still popular for short trips and pleasure trips. In exchange rate fluctuations and cargo companies, freight charges are charged on the Currency Adjustment Factor (CAF), which is cheaper than transport with water.
Sea transportation can be realized at any distance through canals on oceans and lakes, shores, ships, sailors or barge. Shipping may be for commerce, entertainment or military purposes. While extensive inland shipping is less important today, many canals, including the world’s major waterways are still very important and are an integral part of the world’s economies. Virtually any material can be transferred with water; However, water transport becomes impractical when content delivery is time-critical, such as the different types of bad production. However, water transport with regular transportable cargo is highly cost-effective, such as trans-ocean shipping of consumer products – and especially heavy loads or heavy goods such as coal, coke, ores or cereals. Possibly, the industrial revolution was the best, where cheap water transport by the canal, shipping or shipping by all types of waterways on natural waterways supported cost-effective bulk transportation.
In the 1970s, containerization revolutionized sea transport. When cargo is done in more than one mode, then it is intermodal or co-modal.
2005 Merchant Ship (1,000 gross tonnages (GT) and over) registration per country.
More information: Merchant Navy, Sea Lane, Sea Transport System, Ship Canal and Canal
In a country’s naval fleet (Merchant Navy, Merchant Marine, Merchant Fleet) passengers and goods are taken from one place to another. Water transport on the river and canal systems connecting inland sites for merchant shipping is also bigger and smaller. For example, during the early modern era, cities of Hancock League began to build the rivers and ports of northern Europe. While various Illinois canals connect the Great Lake and Canada to New Orleans. Ore, coal and grains can travel to Pittsburgh or Birmingham with the rivers of the American Midwest. Merchant Seaman of Professional Mariner, Merchant Seller and Merchant Mariner or Simple Seaman, Sellers or Mariners, “Seaman” or “Seller” can refer to a member of the country’s navy.
According to the 2005 CIA World Factbook, the total number of merchant ships with at least 1,000 gross register tones in the world was 30,936. Figures of individual countries are available in the list of Navy’s capacity.
During the supply mission for the McMurdo station in Antarctica, a competent Seaman monitors the iceberg, which stands on the USNS South Crossbow; About 1981
The deck has been included in the official posts of the department, but it is not limited to Master and their chief, second and third officers. The official classification for members without license of the deck is Abel Seaman and Ordinary Seaman.
A general deck crew for a vessel includes:
(1) Chief Officer / Chief Met
(1) Second Officer / Second Mate
(1) Third Officer / Third Mate
(2-6) Samarth semen
(0-2) ordinary semen
A deck cadet is a person who essentially meets the timing of the sea to get his official of the Watch Certificate. His time is spent on learning the operation and function of daily life on a merchant ship.
In a ship’s engine department, there are members of a ship crew who conduct and maintain propulsion and other systems on the ship. Engineers believe the board with “hotel” facilities, especially sewage, lighting, air conditioning and water management. They deal with bulk fuel transfer, and they require training in ship fire and first marine operations as well as fire fighting and first aid – especially cargo loading / discharging gear and safety systems. In addition, although specific cargo discharge functions are responsible for deck officers and deck workers. Deck department with a monitoring engineer during work on an LPG and LNG tanker.
A general engine crew for a vessel includes:
(1) Chief Engineer
(1) Second engineer / first assistant engineer
(1) Third Engineer / second assistant engineer
(1-2) Fourth Engineer / Third Assistant Engineer
(0-2) Fifth Engineer / Junior Engineer
(1-3) OILER (Unlicensed Ratings)
(0-3) greenery (waste rating)
(1-5) Entry Level Rating (like Wiper, Utilityman, etc.)
Many American ships also carry a motorman. Other possible posts include mechanics, electricians, refrigeration engineers and tankermen. Engine cadets are engineers who can obtain a monitoring system before completing marine time.
In the block of a typical Steward, the main assistant, the main cook and a helper assistant for the cargo ship will be involved. All three posts are usually filled by unauthorized workers. The main steering preparation directs, directs and employs food and workforce; Cleaning and maintenance of departments of the quarter and staff department; And to get, release and list the store. On large passenger ships, the catering department is the chief and is managed by the assistant Parsons. Although they enjoy the benefits of the official rank, they usually progress through the rank that they become pure. Heads of departments are subject to headers – such as Chief Chef, Head Waiter, Head Burman etc. They are responsible for the administration of their areas.
Main Steward also plans menus; Supports supply, overtime, and cost control records. They may need a store or a device or can buy. They can bake bread, rolls, cakes, pie and pastries. The duties of Main Steward can be overlapped with members of Steward’s Assistant, Chief Cook and other Steward Department crew.
In the Merchant Marine of the United States, Chief Steward must have a Merchant Mariner document issued by the United States Coast Guard. Due to international law, conventions and agreements, all major cooks who maintain internationally are documented in a similar manner by their respective countries.
Mariners spend most of their lives beyond the reach of land. They sometimes face dangerous situations on the ocean or lake – the fishing ports of Gloucester, Massachusetts have a sea monument list of 10,000 fishermen in the sea, who lose their lives in the sea, and more than 1800 in the Great Lakes 10,000 lions are seen. . . By the ships, even then men and women still go to the sea. For some people, the attraction is life without the boundaries of life’s unrest. The opportunity to explore the seaside and the world also appeals to many sea travellers. Whoever is calling, those who live and work in the sea, they face social isolation.
The findings of the Cipher International Research Center show that one of the main reasons for leaving workers is “almost always because they want to live with their families.” American merchant ships usually do not allow family members to go on a cruise. Industry experts recognize separation, tension and fatigue as commercial threats. International Labor Organization, a UN agency and a marine institution, such advocates are demanding improvement in international standards for the Mariners. Satellite phones have improved communication and efficiency in shipbuilding vessels. This technique has contributed to the welfare of the crew, though both instruments and fees are expensive.
Oceanic trips are sunk in routine. Marine tradition determines that each day is divided into a period of six-four hours. Three groups of watch-keepers work for four hours from the engine and deck departments and then stay 8 hours away from watchkeeping. However, many overtime works are done daily, this cycle repeats endlessly, 24 hours a day when the ship is on the sea. Members of the Steward Department are usually day labourers, who work at least eight hours of a shift. The duty of time in maritime operations, including repairs, protection against piracy, acquisition of goods, refill and other duties. Onboard service usually runs for months at a time, after which there is a longshore holiday. However, some ships get secured jobs on ships of their choice, and they remain in it for years.
Accelerated return to many modern ships limits the ash time of the harbour in just a few hours. In addition, some foreign boundaries entering the US ports from the 25-country surveillance list have to face coastal vacations due to security concerns. However, the impact of the coastline on American ports is low and affects the US Seaman too. For example, the international organization of the Masters, Pilot noted a trend of US shipping terminal operators who restricted Seaman from travelling from Terminal to Terminal Gate. In addition, in cases where transit is allowed, special “security charges” are evaluated many times.
With less time on the coast, such restrictions on the coast translate into the sea for a long time. Mariners told that the time to work with marine and ship colleagues has increased, which is the habit of strangers for the most part. At the same time, there is an opportunity to meet people of other ethnic and cultural backgrounds. Some American vessels have improved recreational opportunities, including day-to-day, sea-swapping interchange and gym and other activities. And in some cases, especially in tankers, it is possible for a path along with their family members. However, a Mariner’s off-duty time is very close to relationships, hobbies, reading, writing letters and sleeping.
Life on modern marine ships has changed a lot in the past 20 years, usually registered with the flag of convenience. Most of the large ships include a gym and often a swimming pool for use by the crew. Since the Exxon Valdez incident, leisure activities have been shifted from the bar, only in lounge-style areas where the authorities or the crew can sit to watch movies. With many companies now provide TVs and DVD players in the cabin and implementing strict smoking policies, it is not surprising that the bar on most ships is now a very quiet place. In some instances, game consoles are provided for officers and crew. At the beaches, officers enjoy the level of life.
The crew is usually poorly paid, there is a poor qualification, and the contract takes place approximately 9 months before returning home. They often come from countries where average industrial wages are still very low, such as the Philippines or India. However, officials come from all over the world and it is not uncommon to add the nationality of officers on board ships. Officers are often graduates of the University and receive large amounts of training to reach their rank. Officials get the benefit of this. With a large, more comfortable cabin and table service for your meal.
Ships & Watercraft
Ships and other watercraft are used for marine transportation. Types can be separated by propulsion, size or cargo type. In shallow draft areas, such as Everglades, some crafts, such as hovercraft, are operated by large push-press fans.
Most modern merchant ships can be placed in one of the categories, such as:
Tankers are cargo ships for transport of liquid oil, such as crude oil, petroleum products, liquefied petroleum gas (LPG), liquefied natural gas (LNG) and chemicals, vegetable oils, alcohol and other food – one-third tanker.
Salix Frigo Crop JPG Refrigerated Ship (which is usually referred to as Reef) is usually used to send pear goods, which requires temperature controlled transport, in which most of the fruits, meat, fish, vegetables, dairy Products and other foods are
Roll-on / roll-off ships, such as Chi-Camun, are cargo ships designed to carry wheeled cargoes like automobiles, trailers or railway carriages. RORO (or RO / RO) ships have built-in ramps that allow the cargo to “roll” on the “on” and port. While small ferries that operate on rivers and other short distances, they still ramp frequently, the word RORO is usually reserved for large-ocean-going ships, which include a pure car/truck carrier (PCTC) ship Are.
Container ships are cargo ships, in which container-size containers have their full load, in a technique called container. They make commercial intermodal items a common means of transportation. Informally known as “box bots”, they carry most of the world’s drought. Most container vessels are operated by diesel engines, and there are crew between 10 to 30 people. They usually have a large housing block in the Stern, directly above the engine room.
A tug boat is a form of transport, usually a boat or ship, but other forms, passenger (and ferries) and sometimes carry their vehicles. Goods are also used for transport (in lorries and sometimes non-covered goods containers) and even for rail cars. Most ferries work on regular, often, return services. A pedestrian boat with many stops in Venice, sometimes called Waterbus or Water Taxi. Ferries are part of many public transport systems of water banks and islands, in which there is a direct transit between the points at the very little capital cost compared to bridges or tunnels. There are many ferries RO / RO ships in Northern European waters. See Free Enterprise’s Herald and M / S Estonia disasters.
Cruise ships are passenger trips that are used for pleasure trips, where travel and ship facilities are considered an essential part of the experience. By 2006, tourism grew and it became a major part of annual tourism with millions of people. The rapid development of the industry has seen nine or more newly manufactured vessels for North American customers, which are added every year since 2001, as well as provide the services. European customers are served by the old tonnage which was displaced by new ships introduced in high growth areas in small markets like the Asia-Pacific region. This market is served by the cruise free on the Baltic Sea.
Bulk carriers, such as Sabrina I (seen here), are cargo ships which are used for transportation of bulk cargo items such as ore or food staples (rice, cereals, etc.) and similar cargo. They can be identified on their deck with a hat like a big box, which is designed to slide for loading. A bulk carrier can either be dry or wet. Most lakes are too small to accommodate bulk vessels, but a big fleet of lake carriers has been stopping Great America’s Great Lake and St. Lawrence Seaway for more than a century.
An ocean liner is a passenger vessel, which is designed to carry people from one port to another with long distance sea routes according to a program. Ocean liners can also carry cargo or mail, and can sometimes be used for other purposes.
The ocean liner is usually made with a high freeboard to deal with rough sea and adverse conditions in the open sea, in which there are many possibilities for fuel, food and other consumables on the long journey. Due to the increase in air travel, it was the main migration of most of the passenger transport companies.